1. The following journal article would be an example of _______ research; "The benefits of florescent lighting on production in a factory setting."
Stupid (hint: don't select this one)
2. The ________ is only useful if the concepts, ideas, questions, etc. to be investigated are both testable and falsifiable.
3. Many experiments conducted at universities have Introductory Psychology students act as participants, and then generalize the findings of the study to the general public. In this case, ALL college students in the US can be considered the "population", but those students who participated in the experiment themselves are called the:
4. If you take the S.A.T. exam four times and you receive the same score all four times, we may conclude that the test is ______ but not necessarily _____.
5. In order for an experiment to be considered a TRUE EXPERIMENT there must be both random assignment of subjects/participants to groups, and _______.
equal numbers of males and females
preliminary testing to see if participants are eligible
approval of an internal review board
manipulation of an Independent Variable
6. Marsha, Jan, and Cindy are participants in a psychological study of the effectiveness of three different psychedelic drugs. Each participant is assigned to one and only one condition, receiving only one type of drug, in order to examine the effects of each drug from one group to the next. This is a _____ design.
within-subjects (repeated measures)
I have no clue
7. A correlation coefficient of +0.92 means that as one variable increases, the other variable:
is not affected
is impossible to predict
8. If a participant in an experiment believed that she was expected to act in a certain way, and therefore did not act completely honestly or naturally, her behavior would fit the definition of:
9. After a Psychologist has stated the specific problem to be studied in an experiment, he/she must then develop a(n):
summary of the data
10. Which of the following would allow me to have the MOST control over environmental variables when conducting a research study?
true experimental design
11. What identifies psychology as a scientific discipline?
its professional status
methods used in studying its subject matter
its subject matter
amount of education needed to be a psychiatrist
12. Hypothesis refers to __________:
the outcome of an experiment
a conclusion drawn from an experiment
a form of bias in which the subject tries to outguess the experimenter
a tentative statement about the relationship
13. Statistics are used by researchers to:
analyze the empirical data collected in a study
make their findings sound better
operationally define their variables
ensure the study comes out the way it was intended
14. What is the final step of a scientific investigation?
report the findings
determine whether the hypothesis was supported
15. What is the variable called, in an experiment, that is manipulated by the researcher?
16. What is the purpose of a control group?
make the experiment easier to analyze
show the value of the dependent variable when the independent variable is not being manipulated
to be able to better evaluate the effect of the independent variable
to control all variables
17. When does random assignment occur?
when subjects have an equal chance to be assigned to any condition and/or group in a study
when a subject can choose its group and study
none of the above
all of the above
18. Beth goes to a fast food restaurant and records how many people order hamburgers versus cheeseburgers and whether or not they order a coke versus a diet coke. Beth is involved in a __________:
19. What technique would be useful in determining why a specific toddler is afraid to go to bed?
20. What is one way that distortions can be produced in self report data?
social desirability bias
all of the above
. Which of the following describes single-blind experiments?
(A) They are experiments in which the subjects don’t know whether they are
receiving a real or fake drug or treatment
(B) They help reduce placebo effects
(C) They help reduce bias in research
(D) All of the above
2. What does it mean if two variables have a positive correlation?
(A) As one variable increases, so does the other
(B) As one variable increases, the other decreases
(C) The correlation between the two variables is 0
(D) The correlation between the two variables is greater than 1.0
3. In what type of study does a researcher study an individual subject in depth?
(A) Naturalistic observation
(B) Laboratory observation
(C) Case study
4. How can we determine if a test has good validity?
(A) It produces the same result when it is given at different times to the same
group of people
(B) It produces the same result no matter which version of the test is used
(C) It measures what it is supposed to measure
(D) All of the questions on it can be answered accurately by the subject
5. What is the variable called that a researcher manipulates in an experiment?
(A) Dependent variable
(B) Independent variable
(C) Extraneous variable
(D) None of the above
6. What is the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a data
(B) Standard deviation
7. The social desirability bias can affect which of the following?
(A) The validity of a test
(B) The reliability of a test
(C) Self-report data
(D) None of the above
8. Which of the following is a research method that allows a researcher to get
information about a large number of subjects relatively inexpensively and easily?
(A) Naturalistic observation
(B) Case study
(C) Laboratory observation
9. What is a common way of controlling extraneous variables in an experiment?
(A) Random assignment
(B) Double-blind procedure
(C) Single-blind procedure
(D) Using animal subjects
10. When doing research involving deception with human subjects, researchers have an obligation to do which of the following?
(A) Tell subjects the truth about the study’s purpose and methods after the study is completed
(B) Prevent mental and physical harm to subjects
(C) Let subjects withdraw from the study at any time if they don’t want to keep participating
(D) All of the above
1. A reliable measure has more measurement error than an unreliable measure.
2. An indicator of reliability based on the correlations of each item in a measure
with every other item is called:
3. A measure is reactive if it changes the behavior being measured.
4. A researcher developed a measure of shyness and is now asking whether this
measure does in fact measure a person's true state of shyness. This is a
5. Scores on a final exam are related to student grade point average, the amount
of time spent studying for the exam, and class attendance. What type of validity
is demonstrated in this case?
6. Nominal scales of measurement have no quantitative properties.
7. Which of the following variables does NOT have ratio scale properties?
job satisfaction rating
reaction time to respond when a stimulus is presented
distance (in inches) that two people stand from each other when
8. My measure allows me to successfully predict future behavioral outcomes. My
9. Unobtrusive measures reduce the problem of reactivity.
10. Whenever you divide people into groups, you probably using a nominal scale
level of measurement.
4. The statement, "Interviewers rate job applicants more favorably when they are
wearing a pleasant scent than when they have no scent" is an example of:
description of behavior.
prediction of behavior.
explanation of behavior.
5. The statement, "A pleasant scent increases favorability of ratings because the
scent creates a positive emotional state in the interviewer" is an example of:
description of behavior.
prediction of behavior.
explanation of behavior.
3. Which of the following would result in finding more articles when using
happiness AND marital satisfaction
happiness OR marital satisfaction
4. You found an important article published in 1990. What resource would you
use to find articles that have cited your article since then?
Social Science Citation Index
5. Which of the following is NOT true of theories?
Explain currently known facts.
Rarely change once formulated.
Generate new knowledge.
7. You are reading a paragraph in a journal article; the topic of the paragraph is
the implications of the results for future research. Which section of the article are
4. A researcher records the tips left at a restaurant. The amount of the tip is
related to size of the check, and the number and gender composition of people in
the party. According to regulations, this research would be classified as:
Greater than minimal risk
5. Which is not a reason for a debriefing session?
Required by Health and Human Services regulations.
Deal with issues of stress or deception.
Education about psychological research.
4. Which is NOT a problem when the nonexperimental method is used to study
relationships between variables?
Direction of cause and effect
Behavior is only measured
A "third" variable may be responsible for the relationship.
5. Which of the following relationships would most likely be studied with the
The effect of parental use of alcohol on aggressive behavior of
The effect of distraction while studying on test performance.
The effect of defendant attractiveness on juror decisions.
. In an experiment, some participants took a standard printed exam; others took
the exam using a computer administration procedure. Scores obtained with the
two exam procedures were compared. The independent variable was
__________ and the dependent variable was __________.
exam type; exam score.
exam score, exam type.
participant gender, exam procedure
Which of the following is used to make sure that the participants in each
condition of an experiment are equivalent?
2. A researcher devised a coding system to analyze the messages on an Internet
bulletin board discussion of the controversy concerning Elian Gonzalez, the
Cuban boy who was rescued after a boat accident in the ocean between
and the United States. This study used:
4. A researcher videotaped people while viewing political debates. Raters viewed
segments of the tapes and recorded whether the people were smiling. This study
5. A researcher tries to explain why a particular observation does not fit with a
theory that is used to explain other observations. This is called:
negative case analysis.
7. A researcher accessed information on the Internet from a series of surveys of
women that was conducted during the 1970s and 1980s. The data were
analyzed to examine changes in attitudes and behaviors over time. Which of the
following methods was used?
8. When two or more judges make ratings of observed behaviors, it is important
9. A psychologist conducts a study that uses data collected from many cultures in
the world. The researcher probably used:
Human Relations Area Files
2. You wish to make a precise estimate about the characteristics of a population
of individuals. You should use:
10. A researcher studies memory by talking to groups of people in their 50s, 60s,
and 70s about memory problems that they have experienced and worried about.
This study has collected:
. The number of people who complete a survey in relation to the number of
people contacted to participate is called the:
6. The question, "Do you think that television should have less violence and
fewer shows about sex" is considered:
7. Which type of questions should be first in a questionnaire or interview?
questions about demographics such as age and gender
questions about attitudes and behaviors
8. Which type of question is most likely to be used when the researcher is just
starting to explore what people think about a particular topic?
10. Which is most likely to yield qualitative data?
2. A researcher studied the effect of defendant physical attractiveness on juror
decisions. The attractive person was 20 years old, and the unattractive person
was a 45-year old. The problem here is that:
age is confounded with attractiveness.
it is very difficult to operationally define physical attractiveness.
attractiveness is not related to perceptions of guilt.
4. The same people participate in each condition of an experiment. What type of
design is this?
repeated measures (within-subjects)
independent groups (between-subjects)
6. Complete counterbalancing means that:
there were no practice effects
all possible orders of the IV were used
all Latin squares were constructed
9. All things being equal, which design is more likely to result in a statistically
10. You identified the 15 employees in a large organization who were absent
from work the most days during the previous month. You require these
employees to attend a one-day program on time and stress management in an
attempt to reduce absenteeism. In the following month, all of the employees
improved their attendance. The improvement could be caused by the program or
it might be due to:
1. In an experiment, words with either feminine or masculine connotation were
presented on a computer screen. The participant pressed one key when they
perceived a masculine word and another key when it was perceived as feminine.
Reaction time was the dependent variable. The experimenter used a:
2. The dependent variable was score on a measure of comprehension of
material. Virtually everyone in all conditions of the experiment answered all
questions correctly. Researchers refer to this situation as a:
4. You are concerned that participants in your study may be figuring out exactly
what you are studying. You are worried about:
6. The session that the experimenter holds with participants following an
experiment is called:
7. The galvanic skin response (GSR) is a measure of:
8. A good way to "debug" a study is to run a:
9. An experiment was conducted entirely on the Internet. This procedure
probably eliminated the problem of:
10. A researcher is designing a study on the effect of defendant attractiveness on
juror decisions. To investigate whether participants perceive the two defendants
as different in attractiveness, the researcher should use a:
sensitive dependent measure.
7. A documentary film director made a series of films about the lives of a set of
children when they were 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 years of age, i.e, the films 7-Up
and 14-Up.. What type of "research design" is this?
8. When Donald Campbell compared fatalities in Connecticut and nearby states
before and after a police speeding crackdown, the ___________ design was
interrupted time series
10. After comparing the effects of jail and a drug treatment program on persons
convicted of drug-related offenses, a researcher analyzed the societal costs of
each. The researcher has conducted:
economic efficiency assessment
1. You want to know if males and females differ in preferences for dogs and cats
as pets. You ask males and females to indicate whether they prefer dogs, cats,
or neither dogs nor cats. When you describe your results, you will compare:
2. You want to know if males and females differ in the length of recommended
sentence for someone found guilty of driving under the influence of alcohol. You
ask males and females to indicate the number of weeks of jail time the convicted
person should receive. When you describe your results, you will compare:
4. You conducted a survey of students in your school. You report that half the
students work 25 hours per week or less. The statistic you used is the
5. Couples who share more similar attitudes indicate that they are more satisfied
with their relationship. This reflects a ___________ correlation.
7. A researcher assessed the following variables in a sample of teenage males:
aggressive behavior, anger, loneliness, and perceived social support from family
and friends. In addition to examining the correlations among these variables, the
researcher tested a proposed model of how these variable are related to one
another. The researcher is using a:
partial correlation analysis.
structural equation model.
multiple regression analysis.
10. A multiple correlation is a correlation between one variable and
another variable that is measured on a ratio scale.
a combined set of variables.
a manipulated variable
2. The ability to infer that that the independent variable caused the effect on the
dependent variable is called:
3. When you discuss the extent to which your results would apply to other people
or settings, you are concerned with:
5. A replication in which the original procedures are duplicated is called a(n)
. A study on fear of medical procedures was conducted in a room on campus that
had been decorated as a doctor's office has:
8. The participants in the study became very involved in a computer simulation.
This study has:
10. A study conducted outside the confines of a standard laboratory/classroom is